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史上最全最強SpringMVC詳細示例實戰教程

來源:Sunnier 發布時間:2015-06-22 閱讀次數:

 一、SpringMVC基礎入門,創建一個HelloWorld程序

  1.首先,導入SpringMVC需要的jar包。

  2.添加Web.xml配置文件中關于SpringMVC的配置

  <!--configure the setting of springmvcDispatcherServlet and configure the mapping-->
  <servlet>
      <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
      <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
      <init-param>
            <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
            <param-value>classpath:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
        </init-param>
        <!-- <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup> -->
  </servlet>

  <servlet-mapping>
      <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
      <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
  </servlet-mapping>

  3.在src下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
    xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.1.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.1.xsd">                    

    <!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
    <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC"/>

    <!-- don't handle the static resource -->
    <mvc:default-servlet-handler />

    <!-- if you use annotation you must configure following setting -->
    <mvc:annotation-driven />
    
    <!-- configure the InternalResourceViewResolver -->
    <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver" 
            id="internalResourceViewResolver">
        <!-- 前綴 -->
        <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/jsp/" />
        <!-- 后綴 -->
        <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
    </bean>
</beans>

  4.在WEB-INF文件夾下創建名為jsp的文件夾,用來存放jsp視圖。創建一個hello.jsp,在body中添加“Hello World”。

  5.建立包及Controller,如下所示

  6.編寫Controller代碼

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/mvc")
public class mvcController {

    @RequestMapping("/hello")
    public String hello(){        
        return "hello";
    }
}

  7.啟動服務器,鍵入 http://localhost:8080/項目名/mvc/hello

 二、配置解析

  1.Dispatcherservlet

  DispatcherServlet是前置控制器,配置在web.xml文件中的。攔截匹配的請求,Servlet攔截匹配規則要自已定義,把攔截下來的請求,依據相應的規則分發到目標Controller來處理,是配置spring MVC的第一步。

  2.InternalResourceViewResolver

  視圖名稱解析器

  3.以上出現的注解

  @Controller 負責注冊一個bean 到spring 上下文中

  @RequestMapping 注解為控制器指定可以處理哪些 URL 請求

 三、SpringMVC常用注解

  @Controller

  負責注冊一個bean 到spring 上下文中

  @RequestMapping

  注解為控制器指定可以處理哪些 URL 請求

  @RequestBody

  該注解用于讀取Request請求的body部分數據,使用系統默認配置的HttpMessageConverter進行解析,然后把相應的數據綁定到要返回的對象上 ,再把HttpMessageConverter返回的對象數據綁定到 controller中方法的參數上

  @ResponseBody

  該注解用于將Controller的方法返回的對象,通過適當的HttpMessageConverter轉換為指定格式后,寫入到Response對象的body數據區

  @ModelAttribute    

  在方法定義上使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:Spring MVC 在調用目標處理方法前,會先逐個調用在方法級上標注了@ModelAttribute 的方法

  在方法的入參前使用 @ModelAttribute 注解:可以從隱含對象中獲取隱含的模型數據中獲取對象,再將請求參數 –綁定到對象中,再傳入入參將方法入參對象添加到模型中 

  @RequestParam 

  在處理方法入參處使用 @RequestParam 可以把請求參 數傳遞給請求方法

  @PathVariable

  綁定 URL 占位符到入參

  @ExceptionHandler

  注解到方法上,出現異常時會執行該方法

  @ControllerAdvice

  使一個Contoller成為全局的異常處理類,類中用@ExceptionHandler方法注解的方法可以處理所有Controller發生的異常

 四、自動匹配參數

  //match automatically
  @RequestMapping("/person")
  public String toPerson(String name,double age){
      System.out.println(name+" "+age);
      return "hello";
  }

 五、自動裝箱

  1.編寫一個Person實體類

package test.SpringMVC.model;

public class Person {
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    public int getAge() {
        return age;
    }
    public void setAge(int age) {
        this.age = age;
    }
    private String name;
    private int age;
    
}

  2.在Controller里編寫方法

  //boxing automatically
  @RequestMapping("/person1")
  public String toPerson(Person p){
      System.out.println(p.getName()+" "+p.getAge());
      return "hello";
  }

 六、使用InitBinder來處理Date類型的參數

 //the parameter was converted in initBinder
 @RequestMapping("/date")
 public String date(Date date){
     System.out.println(date);
     return "hello";
 }
    
 //At the time of initialization,convert the type "String" to type "date"
 @InitBinder
 public void initBinder(ServletRequestDataBinder binder){
     binder.registerCustomEditor(Date.class, new CustomDateEditor(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd"),
             true));
 }

 七、向前臺傳遞參數

 //pass the parameters to front-end
 @RequestMapping("/show")
 public String showPerson(Map<String,Object> map){
     Person p =new Person();
     map.put("p", p);
     p.setAge(20);
     p.setName("jayjay");
     return "show";
 }

  前臺可在Request域中取到"p"

 八、使用Ajax調用

 //pass the parameters to front-end using ajax
 @RequestMapping("/getPerson")
 public void getPerson(String name,PrintWriter pw){
     pw.write("hello,"+name);        
 }
 @RequestMapping("/name")
 public String sayHello(){
     return "name";
 }

  前臺用下面的Jquery代碼調用

 $(function(){
     $("#btn").click(function(){
        $.post("mvc/getPerson",{name:$("#name").val()},function(data){
             alert(data);
         });
     });
 });

 九、在Controller中使用redirect方式處理請求

  //redirect 
  @RequestMapping("/redirect")
  public String redirect(){
      return "redirect:hello";
  }

 十、文件上傳

  1.需要導入兩個jar包

  2.在SpringMVC配置文件中加入

  <!-- upload settings -->
  <bean id="multipartResolver"  class="org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver">
      <property name="maxUploadSize" value="102400000"></property>
  </bean>

  3.方法代碼

    @RequestMapping(value="/upload",method=RequestMethod.POST)
    public String upload(HttpServletRequest req) throws Exception{
        MultipartHttpServletRequest mreq = (MultipartHttpServletRequest)req;
        MultipartFile file = mreq.getFile("file");
        String fileName = file.getOriginalFilename();
        SimpleDateFormat sdf = new SimpleDateFormat("yyyyMMddHHmmss");        
        FileOutputStream fos = new FileOutputStream(req.getSession().getServletContext().getRealPath("/")+
                "upload/"+sdf.format(new Date())+fileName.substring(fileName.lastIndexOf('.')));
        fos.write(file.getBytes());
        fos.flush();
        fos.close();
        
        return "hello";
    }

  4.前臺form表單

   <form action="mvc/upload" method="post" enctype="multipart/form-data">
       <input type="file" name="file"><br>
       <input type="submit" value="submit">
   </form>

 十一、使用@RequestParam注解指定參數的name

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/test")
public class mvcController1 {
    @RequestMapping(value="/param")
    public String testRequestParam(@RequestParam(value="id") Integer id,
            @RequestParam(value="name")String name){
        System.out.println(id+" "+name);
        return "/hello";
    }    
}

 十二、RESTFul風格的SringMVC

  1.RestController

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/rest")
public class RestController {
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.GET)
    public String get(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("get"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.POST)
    public String post(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("post"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.PUT)
    public String put(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("put"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
    @RequestMapping(value="/user/{id}",method=RequestMethod.DELETE)
    public String delete(@PathVariable("id") Integer id){
        System.out.println("delete"+id);
        return "/hello";
    }
    
}

  2.form表單發送put和delete請求

  在web.xml中配置

  <!-- configure the HiddenHttpMethodFilter,convert the post method to put or delete -->
  <filter>
      <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
      <filter-class>org.springframework.web.filter.HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-class>
  </filter>
  <filter-mapping>
      <filter-name>HiddenHttpMethodFilter</filter-name>
      <url-pattern>/*</url-pattern>
  </filter-mapping>

  在前臺可以用以下代碼產生請求

    <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
        <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="PUT">
        <input type="submit" value="put">
    </form>
    
    <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
        <input type="submit" value="post">
    </form>
    
    <form action="rest/user/1" method="get">
        <input type="submit" value="get">
    </form>
    
    <form action="rest/user/1" method="post">
        <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="DELETE">
        <input type="submit" value="delete">
    </form>

 十三、返回json格式的字符串

  1.導入以下jar包

  2.方法代碼

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/json")
public class jsonController {
    
    @ResponseBody
    @RequestMapping("/user")
    public  User get(){
        User u = new User();
        u.setId(1);
        u.setName("jayjay");
        u.setBirth(new Date());
        return u;
    }
}

 十四、異常的處理

  1.處理局部異常(Controller內)

 @ExceptionHandler
 public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
     ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
     mv.addObject("exception", ex);
     System.out.println("in testExceptionHandler");
     return mv;
 }
    
 @RequestMapping("/error")
 public String error(){
     int i = 5/0;
     return "hello";
 }

  2.處理全局異常(所有Controller)

@ControllerAdvice
public class testControllerAdvice {
    @ExceptionHandler
    public ModelAndView exceptionHandler(Exception ex){
        ModelAndView mv = new ModelAndView("error");
        mv.addObject("exception", ex);
        System.out.println("in testControllerAdvice");
        return mv;
    }
}

  3.另一種處理全局異常的方法

  在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

  <!-- configure SimpleMappingExceptionResolver -->
  <bean class="org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.SimpleMappingExceptionResolver">
      <property name="exceptionMappings">
          <props>
              <prop key="java.lang.ArithmeticException">error</prop>
          </props>
      </property>
  </bean>

  error是出錯頁面

 十五、設置一個自定義攔截器

  1.創建一個MyInterceptor類,并實現HandlerInterceptor接口

public class MyInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {

    @Override
    public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest arg0,
            HttpServletResponse arg1, Object arg2, Exception arg3)
            throws Exception {
        System.out.println("afterCompletion");
    }

    @Override
    public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
            Object arg2, ModelAndView arg3) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("postHandle");
    }

    @Override
    public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest arg0, HttpServletResponse arg1,
            Object arg2) throws Exception {
        System.out.println("preHandle");
        return true;
    }

}

  2.在SpringMVC的配置文件中配置

    <!-- interceptor setting -->
    <mvc:interceptors>
        <mvc:interceptor>
            <mvc:mapping path="/mvc/**"/>
            <bean class="test.SpringMVC.Interceptor.MyInterceptor"></bean>
        </mvc:interceptor>        
    </mvc:interceptors>

  3.攔截器執行順序

 十六、表單的驗證(使用Hibernate-validate)及國際化

  1.導入Hibernate-validate需要的jar包

(未選中不用導入)

  2.編寫實體類User并加上驗證注解

public class User {
    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }
    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    public Date getBirth() {
        return birth;
    }
    public void setBirth(Date birth) {
        this.birth = birth;
    }
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
    }    
    private int id;
    @NotEmpty
    private String name;

    @Past
    @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
    private Date birth;
}

  ps:@Past表示時間必須是一個過去值

  3.在jsp中使用SpringMVC的form表單

    <form:form action="form/add" method="post" modelAttribute="user">
        id:<form:input path="id"/><form:errors path="id"/><br>
        name:<form:input path="name"/><form:errors path="name"/><br>
        birth:<form:input path="birth"/><form:errors path="birth"/>
        <input type="submit" value="submit">
    </form:form> 

  ps:path對應name

  4.Controller中代碼

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/form")
public class formController {
    @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.POST)    
    public String add(@Valid User u,BindingResult br){
        if(br.getErrorCount()>0){            
            return "addUser";
        }
        return "showUser";
    }
    
    @RequestMapping(value="/add",method=RequestMethod.GET)
    public String add(Map<String,Object> map){
        map.put("user",new User());
        return "addUser";
    }
}

  ps:

  1.因為jsp中使用了modelAttribute屬性,所以必須在request域中有一個"user".

  [email protected] 表示按照在實體上標記的注解驗證參數

  3.返回到原頁面錯誤信息回回顯,表單也會回顯

  5.錯誤信息自定義

  在src目錄下添加locale.properties

NotEmpty.user.name=name can't not be empty
Past.user.birth=birth should be a past value
DateTimeFormat.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
typeMismatch.user.birth=the format of input is wrong
typeMismatch.user.id=the format of input is wrong

  在SpringMVC配置文件中配置

    <!-- configure the locale resource -->
    <bean id="messageSource" class="org.springframework.context.support.ResourceBundleMessageSource">
        <property name="basename" value="locale"></property>
    </bean>

  6.國際化顯示

  在src下添加locale_zh_CN.properties

username=賬號
password=密碼

  locale.properties中添加

username=user name
password=password

  創建一個locale.jsp

  <body>
    <fmt:message key="username"></fmt:message>
    <fmt:message key="password"></fmt:message>
  </body>

  在SpringMVC中配置

    <!-- make the jsp page can be visited -->
    <mvc:view-controller path="/locale" view-name="locale"/>

  讓locale.jsp在WEB-INF下也能直接訪問

  最后,訪問locale.jsp,切換瀏覽器語言,能看到賬號和密碼的語言也切換了

 十七、壓軸大戲--整合SpringIOC和SpringMVC

  1.創建一個test.SpringMVC.integrate的包用來演示整合,并創建各類

  2.User實體類

public class User {
    public int getId() {
        return id;
    }
    public void setId(int id) {
        this.id = id;
    }
    public String getName() {
        return name;
    }
    public void setName(String name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    public Date getBirth() {
        return birth;
    }
    public void setBirth(Date birth) {
        this.birth = birth;
    }
    @Override
    public String toString() {
        return "User [id=" + id + ", name=" + name + ", birth=" + birth + "]";
    }    
    private int id;
    @NotEmpty
    private String name;

    @Past
    @DateTimeFormat(pattern="yyyy-MM-dd")
    private Date birth;
}

  3.UserService類

@Component
public class UserService {
    public UserService(){
        System.out.println("UserService Constructor...\n\n\n\n\n\n");
    }
    
    public void save(){
        System.out.println("save");
    }
}

  4.UserController

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/integrate")
public class UserController {
    @Autowired
    private UserService userService;
    
    @RequestMapping("/user")
    public String saveUser(@RequestBody @ModelAttribute User u){
        System.out.println(u);
        userService.save();
        return "hello";
    }
}

  5.Spring配置文件

  在src目錄下創建SpringIOC的配置文件applicationContext.xml

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans  
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd 
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/util 
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/util/spring-util-4.0.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context.xsd
        "
        xmlns:util="http://www.springframework.org/schema/util"
        xmlns:p="http://www.springframework.org/schema/p"
        xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"    
        >
    <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
        <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
            expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
        <context:exclude-filter type="annotation" 
            expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>        
    </context:component-scan>
    
</beans>

  在Web.xml中添加配置

  <!-- configure the springIOC -->
  <listener>
      <listener-class>org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener</listener-class>
  </listener>
  <context-param>  
    <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>  
    <param-value>classpath:applicationContext.xml</param-value>
  </context-param>

  6.在SpringMVC中進行一些配置,防止SpringMVC和SpringIOC對同一個對象的管理重合

<!-- scan the package and the sub package -->
    <context:component-scan base-package="test.SpringMVC.integrate">
        <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
            expression="org.springframework.stereotype.Controller"/>
        <context:include-filter type="annotation" 
            expression="org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.ControllerAdvice"/>
    </context:component-scan>

 十八、SpringMVC詳細運行流程圖

 十九、SpringMVC與struts2的區別

  1、springmvc基于方法開發的,struts2基于類開發的。springmvc將url和controller里的方法映射。映射成功后springmvc生成一個Handler對象,對象中只包括了一個method。方法執行結束,形參數據銷毀。springmvc的controller開發類似web service開發。

  2、springmvc可以進行單例開發,并且建議使用單例開發,struts2通過類的成員變量接收參數,無法使用單例,只能使用多例。

  3、經過實際測試,struts2速度慢,在于使用struts標簽,如果使用struts建議使用jstl。

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